'So you are saying...': Formulating what the teacher said

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The presentation offers analyses of formulating practices in which nonnative students characterize or recast what was said in the previous turn(s) by their teacher, typically but not limited with 'so you are saying...' These practices offer insight into how students clarify lesson contents, infer what to do and correct misunderstanding.

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Micro-Analytic perspective CA provides (Jenks & Seedhouse, 2015) allows analysts to specify myriad ways in which classroom interactions is organized and shaped in the course of interaction. One such interpretive action is found in formulating practice in which participants formulate what each other is doing during their interactional exchange. This practice is akin to meta-talk through which participants characterize or recast what was said in previous turn(s). We can find these practices in those remarks that begins with “so you are saying...” though there are other ways. Through formulating practices, participants describe, explain, recount and clarify what was said in the exchange; thus members’ formulations often clarify the equivocal sense of what they are doing. (Garfinkel & Sacks, 1970; Lynch, 1993). Formulating practices are frequently observed in teacher talk. There are, however, occasions in which students formulate what their teacher were saying during classroom interaction. Student’s formulating acts seem to perform a wide range of action and thus play important roles in shaping the next sequences during classroom interaction: they show, for example, how students understand what goes on, confirm what was said, explain what becomes problematic, to name a few. Since formulating practices are responses to the teacher’s talk, they are improvised and thus contingent upon what the prior turns by the teacher was about. They, therefore, specifies interpretive acts of understanding that is temporally evolving sequence of interaction. The presentation is organized to analyze several interactional excerpts in which nonnative learners of English formulate what their teacher has just said in the course of interaction. These excerpts are taken from data corpus that consists of ESL and EFL classroom interactions at undergraduate classrooms. Tracing formulating practices offers interpretive works through which lesson contents are clarified, inference of what to do are made and misunderstanding is corrected.

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Sogang University

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